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For interoperability reasons, the European Publication Information Infrastructure Data Model relies on the CERIF data model which allows representation of various research entities, their connection and outputs with their semantic relationships. For this first iteration of the data model, a certain subset of attributes from the CERIF data model, more specifically the ones related to Publication element, were chosen.

How this subset differs from the OpenAIRE's Guidelines for CRIS Managers is that the control over which attributes should be included in the publication metadata is greatly expanded. This is indicated by the list of attributes under "Mandatory" title. To some extent this core set of attributes was already discussed on the ENRESSH-VIRTA-POC, but is now also corresponding to the CERIF data model and its attributes. This is made evident by providing each attribute with a equivalent CERIF representation as well as what is mentioned on the OpenAIRE's Guidelines for CRIS Managers.

European Publication Information Infrastructure

Figure 1: European Publication Information Infrastructure Data Model in relation to CERIF data model and OpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS Managers

A set of these mandatory elements should be provided with every record that is to be aggregated to European Publication Information Infrastructure. For each attribute, a justification i.e. why this attribute is relevant for the interoperability and quality of metadata, is provided.

In addition, a disclaimer i.e. what kind of context related issues there might be for certain attribute, is discussed and analyzed. These are to support the validation phase and also add up to the bottom-up discussion on source systems on how to make metadata comparable and unified in relation to e.g. classifications of publications.

Also, a set of attributes is stated under "Conditional" title with less detailed information. These attributes would be required based on the record's publication type. For example a book chapter should be accompanied by ISBN number of the book and the source title of this book. Otherwise, these attributes would be optional.

Last, some attributes are listed under "Optional" title. These would not be required by the validation process for any records, but would be strongly recommended in metadata exchanges to support the quality of metadata and help with e.g. de-duplication processes of the infrastructure.

Proposed European Publication Information Infrastructure Data Model's attributes

Mandatory

Publication
Internal identifier
Publication type
Publication title
Publication date
Author
Organizational author and affiliation
Discipline

Conditional

 ISSN*
ISBN*
Source title*
Peer review*

Mandatory based on publication type*

Optional

 Audience
DOI
Volume
Number
Start page
End page

Mandatory attributes

PublicationCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure
One publication equals one record, to which other information is related to.XML element PublicationOther attributes are children to this element, as such a mandatory (1)Other attributes are children to this element, as such a mandatory (1)

Justification: As it's the base element for all the other elements it should be mandatory to provide.

Disclaimer: High variation on source systems in terms of publication inclusion criteria, e.g. are non-scholarly publications included as well (professional and general/popular books, articles, reports etc.) or are conference presentations or short abstracts included. To some extent this can be traced by the type -element and what kind of types are included. Scope of what is actually recorded as a publication could be provided by for example provenance information in about element or otherwise controlled/validated in metadata exchange. Limitations to inclusion criteria are not recommended though, as comparability and analysis of records are more dependent on e.g. publication types to be consistent.

Internal identifierCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure

The organization's own ID for the publication. 

XML attribute idmandatory (1)mandatory (1)

Justification: For technical purposes e.g. harvesting and updating the record, a unique id is needed for the metadata to be traceable.

Disclaimer: None

Publication typeCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure

Publication type according to the publication type classification.

XML element Type from namespace https://www.openaire.eu/cerif-profile/vocab/COAR_Publication_Typesmandatory (1)mandatory (1)

Justification: Metadata should be provided on the publication type to have at least some structure and information on the publications. This allows the data to be comparable and used as a basis for analysis and research.

Disclaimer:  Source systems almost never have the exact same semantics / classifications for publication types e.g. what is included in a review article type might differ based on the source system definition. Mapping publication types from data model to another always leads to loss of information. Three different approaches can be had on the mapping (1) try to achieve the most accurate possible mapping between data models (2) use the so called lowest denominator of publication types; a limited set of broad categories (3) use lowest denominator publication types, but include refinements where possible and use the broad categories externally.

Publication titleCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure

Publication title as given in the article or the book. If necessary, the title of a foreign-language publication may be transliterated. 

XML element Title as a multilingual stringoptional, possibly multiple (0..*)at least one mandatory, possibly multiple (1..*)

Justification: In terms of proper identification of the publication, a publication title should be provided. Although in theory, this could be enriched from elsewhere, but for accurate information it should be provided from the source systems to get title in the original publishing language. Data exchange can be done using multilingual strings to provide information on alternative languages as well.

Disclaimer: As publication title is provided in a free form text string, there is no guarantee that the title would match either the original publication title or title provided in other databases for the same publication.

Publication yearCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure

The year in which the publication was published for the first time as a version with full bibliographic information.

XML element PublicationDate

optional (0..1)mandatory (1)

Justification: For publishing date a year of the publication is needed for comparison and analyzing purposes. This allows the data to be e.g. analyzed between time periods.

Disclaimer: Publication year is not always definitive, but it should be based on the time when publication was published as a version with full bibliographic information available.

AuthorsCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure

Authors of the publication that were listed in the original publication or source database. 

XML element Authors with ordered embedded XML elements Author

XML element Author with embedded XML element Person

optional (0..1)

optional, possibly multiple (0..*)

mandatory (1)

at least one mandatory, possibly multiple (1..*)

Justification: Author information is highly relevant to be able to both identify and analyze the bibliographic metadata for research purposes. Without author data, there would be no ties to the persons and a research dimension, that are the people behind the publications, would be lost. To collect this information on the source systems, the metadata quality should be high as the different

Disclaimer: As the format and spelling of names might vary heavily between source systems, the use of identifiers e.g. ORCID is highly recommended. But as many researchers are still missing the unique identifiers or the systems are not supported by it, the author information should still be provided in text string format as well.

Organization authors / affiliationCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure

Authors affiliated in the reporting organisation.

XML element Person optionally followed by one or several Affiliation elements, or OrgUnit. A DisplayName may be specified, too.optional, possibly multiple (0..*)mandatory, possibly multiple (1..*)

Justification: Organizational author information is relevant as it ties the publication via affiliation information to a certain organization. Thus, an analysis or research can be made using the affiliation information. It also provides better legitimacy for the publication as the affiliated organization is known. The information about organizational units should be made as close to the source system as possible and it should be made mandatory for that reason.

Disclaimer: At this time there is no reliable identifier in place for organizations. By providing information in both human and machine readable formats, there would still be no up to date information on e.g. organizational units as they tend to change as time passes and organization structures change.

Discipline / Field of scienceCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure

The first, so-called primary field of science is mandatory.

XML element Subject containing the classification identifier and having a scheme attribute to specify the classification scheme identifieroptional, possibly multiple (0..*)mandatory, possibly multiple (1..*)

Justification: For analysis and research purposes, a discipline should be provided for the publication. Although many schemas are available, for data comparability all publications should use standard OECD's revised Frascati Manual classification as mandatory schema for providing fields of science (FoS). Multiple entries for FoS can be assigned for each publication.

Disclaimer: The practices on how to classify discipline for publications vary heavily and many of the source systems use different variations of FoS classification or even use a local classification for disciplines. Discipline can in addition be defined by 1) publication itself, 2) journal of the publication, 3) author of the publication or 4) organizational unit where the author comes from.

Conditional attributes

ISSNCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure

The ISSN number of the series publishing the journal, monograph or parent publication according to the primary printed version. If there is no printed version, the ISSN number of the electronic version will be indicated.

XML element ISSNoptional, possibly multiple (0..*)

mandatory (1) if publication type of following:

conference paper, journal article, review article, research article, editorial, data paper

otherwise optional, possibly multiple (0..*)

ISBNCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure

Publication or parent publication ISBN number.

XML element ISBN

optional, possibly multiple (0..*)

mandatory (1) if publication type of following:

bibliography, book, book part, report

otherwise optional, possibly multiple (0..*)

Source titleCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure

The source (another Publication) where this publication appeared. E.g. a journal article lists here the journal where it appeared. To be used for a publishing channel.

XML element PublishedIn with embedded XML element Publicationoptional (0..1)

mandatory (1) if publication type of following:

book part, editorial

otherwise optional (0..1)

Peer reviewCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure
Whether the publication is peer reviewed.XML element using tagsNot present

mandatory (1) if publication type of following

conference paper, journal article, review article, research article, editorial, data paper

otherwise optional (0..1)

Could also be enriched via journal/book information

Optional attributes

AudienceCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure
Based on the target audience of the publication.XML element using tagsNot present

optional (0..2)

Classification:

0=Scientific

1=Professional

2=General/public

Could also be enriched via journal/book information

DOI

CERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) of the publication.

XML element DOIoptional, possibly multiple (0..*)

optional, possibly multiple (0..*)

VolumeCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure

Volume of the journal or series in which the article appeared.

XML element Volumeoptional (0..1)optional (0..1)
NumberCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure

Issue of the journal or series in which the article appeared.

XML element Numberoptional (0..1)optional (0..1)
Start pageCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure

Publication's start page number in which the article was published in the same format as in the original article or source database.

XML element StartPageoptional (0..1)optional (0..1)
End pageCERIF representationOpenAIRE Guidelines for CRIS ManagersEuropean Publication Information Infrastructure
Publication's end page number in which the article was published in the same format as in the original article or source database.XML element EndPageoptional (0..1)optional (0..1)

Supporting documents

VIRTA European pilot - the data contents

https://openaire-guidelines-for-cris-managers.readthedocs.io/en/latest/cerif_xml_publication_entity.html






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